• WINDSOR BLUE
  • RED PEPPER
  • AUBERGINE
  • COBALT
A
Accordian Fold
A bindery term where two or more parallel folds open like an accordion. 
Acid Free
A paper that has no acidity and no residual acid producing chemicals. Papers manufactured to a pH of higher than 7.0 (neutral).
Adhesive Bound
Book binding technique that uses glue or hot melt glue to hold each page or signature together and into the cover of the book.
AF & PA
American Forest & Paper Association. An organization that coordinates the many different needs of the broad- based paper and paperboard industry.
Against The Grain
Folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain direction of the paper.
Antique Finish
A very rough uncoated paper finish, obtained on the paper machine with little wet pressing or machine calendering; can also serve as a prefix to other finishes, implying a rougher than usual finish, such as antique or vellum.
Archival Paper
A paper that has long-standing qualities - acid free, lignin free, usually with good color retention. Archival papers must meet national standards for performance. The expected life of archival paper is more than 100 years.
B
Backing Up
Printing the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side.
Bagasse
Crushed sugar cane or fiber used in papermaking. An alternative fiber to trees.
Basis Weight
The weight in pounds of a ream of paper, typically consisting of 500 sheets cut to its basic size.
Beater
Large, longitudinally partitioned vat used to mix and mechanically work pulp with other ingredients to make paper.
Bill Of Lading
Transportation term referring to the contract between a supplier and carrier, listing number of packages, total weight, and address of destination.
Bindery
A department in a book manufacturing or printing plant that takes the paper after printing, folds it, collates the signatures and binds them.
Blade Coating
The coating method that uses a knife blade to apply a smooth and level, but non-uniform thickness, of coating to the surface of a sheet of paper.
Blanket
A fabric coated with rubber or other synthetic material which is clamped around the blanket cylinder and which transfers the ink from the press plate to the paper.
Bleed
An extra amount of the printing image that extends beyond the trim edge of the sheet or page.
Blotter Paper
Is a very absorbent and bulky, wood-free paper that is sometimes made from a pulp of cotton or wool fibers.
Bond Paper
Originally referred to paper used for printing BONDS and other certificates, but now a generic term applied to business papers; also called writing; generally are less opaque than an equivalent weight book paper. Bond paper normally used in any office for copier, laser printer, and general typing or writing.
Book Papers
Also called text or offset. Book Papers are made from all types of virgin, reclaimed and recycled pulps in a variety of basis weights and variety of finishes. Book papers are generally more opaque than an equivalent weight bond paper.
Brightness
The brilliance or reflectance of paper.
Bristols
Is a heavyweight paper that possesses higher-than-average quality characteristics.
Broke
Paper trimmings or paper damaged from breaks on the paper machine.
Broken Carton
A carton of paper that has been opened and some of its contents removed.
Bulk
Thickness of paper stock in thousandths of an inch or number of pages per inch.
C
C1S
Coated one side.
C2S
Coated two sides.
Calender
A stack of smooth steel rolls resting on top of the other at the end of a paper machine. The paper web is threaded between one or more of the "nips" under pressure to control the desired smoothness and thickness of the final sheet.
Caliper
The thickness of paper expressed in thousandths of an inch.
Camera-Ready Copy
As the name implies, this is copy to be printed that is ready to be used without further alteration.
Carbonless Paper
Copying paper that is coated so that it can be used without carbon coating or interleaved carbon paper. Paper used in multi-ply or multiple copy forms.
Carton
A general term used to indicate a folding paper box container of paper.
Case Bound Book
A book with a hard, stiff cover made of chipboard and covered with paper, cloth vinyl or leather material.
Cast-Coated Paper
High-gloss coated paper and paperboard with surface characteristics produced by allowing applied coating to harden while in contact with surface of steam-heated, high-polished, chrome-plated drum.
CB Paper
Coated Back; the coated donor sheet of mated carbonless paper, used in multiple part forms; the CB coating contains colorless dyes, microencapsulated with a suitable solvent, for controlled release and development of color on the CF receiver sheet; will have the CB coating on the back of all but the last ply of the form.
Cellulose Fibers
The primary ingredient or raw material in making paper derived mainly from wood, but can be obtained from cotton, sugar cane, or other plant sources.
CF Paper
Coated Front; the coated receiver sheet of mated carbonless paper, used in multiple part forms; contains a color developer in the CF coating; will have the CF coating on the 2nd through the last plies of the form.
CFB Paper
Coated Front and Back; the intermediate or middle plies of mated carbonless paper, used in multiple part forms. CFB paper has both CF and CB coatings; see CF and CB paper. Also see carbonless paper.
Chipboard
Paperboard made primarily from waste paper.
Coated Paper
Paper that has been coated with a material to provide printing ink holdout and smoothness. It is manufactured in a variety of finishes.
Cockle
A surface with a rippling effect, intentionally obtained by air drying under minimum tension; simulates hand made, air dried paper; as a cockle finish, is a desirable effect.
Collating
The gathering of printed, signatures in correct order prior to binding.
Color Bars
Printed bars of ink colors used to monitor a print image. These bars show the amount of ink to be applied by the press, the registration, and the densities across the press sheet.
Color Separation
The process of separating full color originals into the primary printing colors; see "three-color and four-color process"; can be accomplished either photographically or electronically.
Commodity Offsets
Papers having lower brightness and opacity than premium grades and priced accordingly. These papers are commonly made in large volume.
Common Carrier
Transportation term also known as LTL (Less Than Truckload) carrier used for shipping small items.
Competitive Grades
Similar grades of papers produced by mills for the same purpose.
Conditioning
Allowing paper to sit long enough for it to adjust to the surrounding atmosphere until its moisture content is equal to atmospheric moisture content. This process provides for optimum performance on the press.
Converted Paper
Paper changed from its original state into a new product such as envelopes, gummed tape, labels, etc.
Copier/Laser Paper
Lightweight grades of good quality and dimensionally stable papers used in photocopying.
Core
A tube, usually metal, wood, fiberboard, or metal-tipped, on which paper is wound.
Cotton Fiber
Domestic paper made with 25 to 100% cotton fibers are classified as cotton papers. One of the finest materials used for paper, cotton is durable and is often selected for certificates and historical documents.
Cover Paper and Cardstock
Heavyweight paper used for cover
and cards.
Cromalin
The trade name for DuPont color proofs.
Crop
To cut off parts of a picture or image.
Crop Marks
The printed lines showing where to trim a printed sheet.
Crossover
Printing across the gutter or from one page to the facing page of a publication.
Cutscore
In die-cutting, a sharp-edged knife usually several thousandths of an inch lower than the cutting rules in a die, made to cut part way into the paper or board for folding purposes.
Carload
A truckload of paper weighing 40,000 lbs.
Cut-Size Paper
Refers to any lift of paper, which is 17" x 22", or less in dimensions. Generally, specific to business papers which are generally 8 1/2" x 11", 8 1/2" x 14" (legal size), 11" x 17" or A4A size.
Cwt
Hundred weight - a unit of measurement to denote 100 lbs. for pricing or weight purposes.
D
Dandy Roll
A hollow wire-covered roll that rides on the paper machine wire and compacts the wet, newly formed web to improve its formation and, if required, to impart a watermark or laid finish to paper. A desired effect you can see if light is viewed through the sheet.
Deckle
A term sometimes used to refer to the wet end width of a paper machine. In papermaking, the width of the wet sheet as it comes off the wire.
Deckle Edge
The feathery edge that is the result of the natural run-off of wet pulp when making handmade and mould made paper, or the result of sheets being torn when wet. The edge is simulated in machine made papers by cutting them with a stream of water when still wet.
Die
A design, letters, or pattern cut in metal for stamping, embossing or for die cut.
Die Cut
The method of cutting paper into irregular shapes by metallic dies to specified dimensions.
Digester
The large pressure vessel that wood is cooked to extract the cellulose fibers.
Digital On-Demand Or Print On-Demand
Refers to the ability to print very small quantities (50-500 copies),
quickly and cost-effectively.
Dimensional Stability
Paper's ability to maintain size and resistance to dimensional change when exposed to various ambient conditions.
Direct Printing
Any printing where the ink is transferred directly from the plate to the paper; most lithographic printing is "offset," i.e., a blanket is utilized to transfer the ink from the plate to the paper.
Dot Gain
The gain in size of the printed dot, as a result of the ink, paper, printing pressure, prepress operation, or any combination of these. Since the dots printed are larger than planned, this can be a defect evidenced by darker tones and/or different hues.
Double Coated
A sheet that has been coated twice on the same side. Sometimes incorrectly confused with a sheet coated on both sides.
DPI - (dots per inch)
In printing the number of dots that fit horizontally and vertically into a one-inch measure. Generally, the more dots per inch, the more detail is captured, and the sharper the image.
Drawdown
The application of a thin film of ink to a piece of paper. It is used as a test for coating or ink for color.
Drilling
Using a hollow point drill to pierce a stack of paper in a precise manner. Loose-leaf notebook paper is an example of drilled paper.
Dry Back
The term applied when the density and/or gloss of the wet, freshly printed ink film decreases after drying to a greater extent than was anticipated. It is generally related to an overly absorbent paper surface or a poor ink-paper choice.
Dry End
That part of the paper machine where the paper is dried; the last sections of the machine.
DT Cover
"Double-thick" describes a sheet of paper made by bonding two thicknesses of paper together resulting in an extra-stiff sheet.
Dull Coated
A finish with a low gloss. With respect to coated box paper, a finish with a glare test less than 55 percent.
Dummy
A preliminary mock-up to show the style, form, size or shape of a printing job.
Duotone
A halftone illustration printed in two colors from a single color original to increase contrast or image.
Duplex
Using two different stocks or it may also be obtained by pasting (laminating) together two papers or boards of different texture. It is the general term that refers to multi-ply paper made of two sheets of paper.
E
ECF Elemental Chlorine Free
Pulp bleached without the use of elemental chlorine. Generally this is virgin fiber
bleached with chlorine dioxide.
Eggshell Finish
Usually refers to book grades of paper that have a finish similar to the surface of an egg. A special felt is used to mark the surface before the paper is dried.
Embossed Finish
A finish imparted to paper through an embossing machine. After the paper passes through the embosser, it receives a finish on both sides.
Embossing
An impression of an image in relief to achieve a raised surface; either over printing or on a blank paper (called blind embossing).
Enamel
A general term for clay coating on papers. Originally designated a coated paper with a high gloss finished surface. Has come to signify any coated paper surface, regardless of gloss.
Engraving
Printing by the intaglio process. Ink is applied to the paper under extreme pressure resulting in a printed surface being raised. Used for fine letterheads, wedding invitations, etc.
Equivalent Weight
The basis weight of paper expressed in terms of a different basic size.
EPS -Encapsulated PostScript
In digital prepress, a file format used to transfer graphic images within compatible applications. A file containing structured PostScript code, comments and a screen display image.
EPA
An abbreviation for the "Environmental Protection Agency".
F
Fan-A-Part Adhesive/Glue
Padding compound specifically designed for mated
carbonless paper.
Feel
Term expressing an individual's impression of a paper's finish and stiffness or suppleness.
Felt Finish
A finish applied to the paper at the wet end of the paper machine by using felts of a distinctive weave.
Felt Side
Top side of the paper, opposite from the wire side or underneath. The "right side of the paper".
Fiber
The small strands of wood, cotton or other cellulose product that is used to make the paper.
Fine Papers
High-quality printing/writing and cover papers with excellent surface characteristics for fine printing.
Finish
The physical look and feel of the paper's surface. These include smooth, felt, laid, linen and others.
Finishing
Paper processes that occur after the completion of papermaking operations, including super calendering, slitting, rewinding, sheeting, trimming, sorting, etc., prior to shipment from the facility.
Flexographic Printing
Printing from a relief image with a rubber or plastic plate. A form of letterpress printing, using synthetic or rubber relief plates, special inks, presses, and procedures.
Fluorescent Inks
Extremely brilliant inks containing fluorescent pigments.
Fluorescent Paper
Paper that has been manufactured with the addition of fluorescent dyes that give the brilliance that appears brighter when viewed in natural daylight.
Foldout
A page that exceeds the dimensions of a single page. It is folded to page size and included in the book, sometimes bound in and sometimes tipped in (pasted).
Formation
Refers to the uniformity or lack of it in the distribution of the fibers when manufacturing paper; can be observed by looking through the sheet; a good formation is uniform or "Close", while a poor formation is not.
Fountain
The unit on a press that contains ink to be fed to the distributing system, and the part that feeds the fountain solution to the dampening system.
Four-Color Process
The four basic colors of ink (yellow, magenta, cyan, and black), which reproduce full-color photographs or art.
Fourdrinier
The term for the section of the paper machine that is a continuous "wire" or belt screen, through which the first removal of water occurs. The point of formation.
Free Sheet
A paper that does not contain groundwood or mechanical pulp.
FPO For Position Only
In digital imaging, typically a low-resolution image positioned in a document to be replaced later with a higher resolution version of the same image.
FSC - Forest Stewardship Council
An independent, international, environmentally and socially oriented forest certification organization. It trains, accredits and monitors third-party certifiers around the world and works to establish international forest management standards.
Furnish
The mixture of fiber and other materials that is blended in the water suspension, or slurry, from which paper or board is made; usually about 1% solid material with 99% or the balance being water.
G
GCR
Gray Component Replacement
Ghosting
Ghosted images are unwanted images (often faint) that appear in the printed piece.
Gloss
The attribute of paper that causes it to be shiny and lustrous. The "shininess" ("glare") reflected from a surface.
Grade
The classification given to paper due to its unique characteristics, which includes brightness, opacity, cotton content, etc…
Grain
Directional alignment of fibers in a sheet of paper.
Grain Long
Term used to designate that the grain of the paper is parallel to the longest measurement of a sheet of paper. The fibers are aligned parallel to the length of the sheet.
Grain Short
Opposite of grain long. The grain of the paper runs at the right angles to the longest dimension of the sheet. Fiber alignment in grain short paper parallels the sheet's shortest dimension.
Grams Per Square Meter
The basis weight of paper stated in metric terms of grams per square meter
and expressed as g/m2.
Gripper
A row of clips that holds a sheet of paper as it speeds through the press.
Gripper Margin
Unprintable back edge of a sheet of paper on which grippers bear, usually ½ inch or less.
Guilding
The application of a gold or silver metallic material to one or all three sides of a trimmed book.
Gummed Paper
All papers that include an adhesive on one side of the sheet. Could be a remoistening, thermo-adhesive or pressure sensitive.
Gutter
The blank space or inner margin on a press sheet from printing area to binding.
H
Hairline Register
Register within ± ½ row of dots.
Hardbound
Another term for casebound.
Headbox
On a paper machine, the box that dispenses the appropriate amount of furnish (pulp) into the papermaking process.
Head To Head
An imposition that requires that pages be laid out with the top of a page (head) positioned across the top of the page (head) opposite it on the form.
Head To Tail
An imposition which requires that pages be laid out with the top of a page (head) positioned across from the bottom (tail) of the page opposite on the form.
Heat Set Ink
Inks used in high-speed web offset. They set rapidly under heat and are quickly chilled.
Hickeys
In offset, spots or imperfections in the printed image traceable to such things as dirt on the press, dried ink skin, paper particles, dust, etc…
Hit
An impression from a stamping die.
Holdout
A term referring to papers that retain much of the resinous ink components on the surface of the sheet rather than absorbing them into a fiber network. Papers with too much holdout cause problems with setoff.
I
Imitation Parchment
Paper made with irregular distribution of fibers.
Impression
Pressure of type on blanket as it comes in contact with paper.
Ink Absorption
The degree with which paper will absorb ink.
Ink Fountain
In printing presses, the device which stores and supplies ink to the inking rollers.
Ink Holdout
An important printing paper quality - the ability to keep ink on top of the paper's surface. An inked image printed on paper with a high degree of ink holdout will dry by oxidation rather than absorption.
Ink Jet Printing
In digital printing, a plateless printing system that produces images directly on paper from digital data using streams of very fine drops of dyes which are controlled by digital signals to produce images on paper.
Interleaves (slip sheets)
Paper inserted between sheets as they come off the printing press to prevent transfer of wet ink from one to the other. Also, accessory sheets between parts in a form.
J
Jog
To align sheets of paper into a compact pile.
Junior Carton
A package of reamed sealed, cut size paper packed 8 to 10 reams per carton.
Justify
To make a line (or lines) of text copy fit both margins exactly.
K
Kerning
A method in composition of changing the spacing between type.
Key Plate
In color printing, the plate used as a guide for the register of other colors. It normally contains the most detail.
Keyline
In artwork, an outline drawing of finished art to indicate the exact shape, position and size for such elements as halftones, line sketches, etc…
Kiss Impression
Printing performed with only slight pressure. The normal procedure for quality printing.
Kiss-Cut
Partial cut through.
L
Label
Paper coated on one side, used for labeling applications.
Laid
Term describes the finish imparted by a dandy roll which features wires parallel to its axis that impress the paper during manufacture to produce a permanent watermark.
Laminated
Paper that is created by fusing one or more layers of paper together to the desired thickness. Often other substances like thin sheets of metal, plastic are fused to paper.
Letterpress
Also known as relief typographic printing, letterpress printing employs the use of type or designs cast or engraved in relief (raised) on a variety of surfaces which can include metal, rubber, and wood. Opposite of intaglio printing, in letterpress printing the ink is applied to the raised printing surface. Non-printing areas or spaces are recessed. Impressions are made in various ways. On a platen press the impressions are made by pressure against a flat area of type or plate. Flat-bed cylinder press printing uses the pressure of a cylinder rolling across a flat area of type or plate to create the impression. A rotary web press uses a plate that has been stereotyped (molded into a curved form) which presses against another cylinder carrying the paper.
Lift
Maximum number of sheets handled by operator of guillotine cutting machine or by paper handler loading paper for printing.
Lightfastness
The degree to which a paper or printed piece will resist a change in color when exposed to light.
Lignin
The "glue" that binds the cells of the tree and creates its structure. Approximately one third of the tree is lignin.
Likesidedness
Noticeably similar side-to-side color and finish of a sheet of paper.
Linen Finish
A paper embossed to have a surface resembling linen cloth.
Lithography
A generic term for any printing process in which the image area and the nonimage area exist on the same plane (plate) and are separated by chemical repulsion.
Localized Watermark
Achieved by arranging the design on the dandy roll to leave a watermark at a predetermined place on the sheet.
Long Grain
Paper made with the machine direction in the longest sheet dimension.
Loose Register
Color that fits "loosely"; positioning (register) is not critical.
M
M
Symbol in the paper industry designating 1,000. Usually used to designate 1,000 sheets or two reams of fine paper.
Mweight
Weight of 1,000 sheets of paper at a given size and basis weight. Is defined as the weight in pounds of 1000 sheets of paper of a given basis weight and size (dimensions); M is the Roman numeral for 1000.
Makeready
In printing presses, all work done prior to running.
Making Order
A paper that is not available off the supplier's shelf, but they will produce it when ordered. Making orders for special sizes, colors and weights of paper are subject to small minimums.
Matte Finish
A coated paper with a low level of gloss compared to enamel or gloss finishes.
Merchant
A company designated by a paper mill to represent and distribute their products and services to printers and publishers.
Micrometer
A device for accurately measuring the thickness (caliper) of paper.
Mottle
Finish which exhibits high and low spots or glossy and dull areas on the printed sheet.
N
Neutral PH
Offset papers manufactured with a pH of 6.0 to 8.0 on a scale of .0 to 14.0. Neutral pH factors are built into paper as a minimum value, to increase stability and improve permanence for use in printing of archival records.
O
Offset Lithography
The most common form of lithographic printing. To print, the ink is "offset" (transferred) from the plate onto a rubber blanket and then to the paper.
Offset Paper
Coated or uncoated paper specifically for offset printing.
Onionskin
A thin, lightweight paper used primarily for typewritten correspondence.
Opacity
The amount of "show through" in a sheet from one side to the other. The higher the opacity the less likely that the printing on one side will be visible from the other side.
Opaque Ink
An ink that conceals all color beneath it.
Opaques
Papers that have been opacified to achieve a high level of opacity and a minimum amount of show-through.
Out-Of-Square
Sheet paper which is cut or trimmed with other than 90 degree corners, or that is cut non-parallel or not at right angles to the grain of the paper (cut on the bias).
Overrun
A quantity of paper made in excess of the amount ordered.
P
Padding Compound
A flexible glue used in padding loose sheets.
Page Proofs
Initial impression of a page pulled for checking purposes before the entire job is run.
Pages Per Inch
In book production, the number of pages contained in a one-inch stack of paper.
Pallet
A wooden platform with stringers wide enough to allow a fork lift to drive into it and lift; used to pack cartons for shipment, if specified by the customer. Pallets are usually not reusable.
Parallel Fold
Any series of folds in sequence, made in parallel fashion.
Pasted
Pasted grades are those grades of paper or paperboard made up of layers pasted together. The process is a machine operation used to combine sheets of the same or different papers into a single thickness.
PCF - Process Chlorine Free
This is generally a recycling, decolorizing and bleaching process done without the use of chlorine or chlorine compounds. The usual chemicals are peroxide, ozone and oxygen.
PMS
Pantone Matching System.
Post Consumer Waste
Paper products that have served their intended end uses and have now been separated or diverted from solid waste for the purpose of recycling.
Preconsumer Waste
Manufacturing wastes such as envelope cuttings, bindery trimmings, rejected unused paper, obsolete inventories, and printed paper which have never reached the consumer.
Print On-Demand
Refers to the ability to print very small quantities (50-500 copies), quickly and cost-effectively.
Process Color
A four color reproduction. In four color printing, the process colors are yellow, magenta, cyan and black.
Proofs
Samples of copy and/or layout made at various stages of production of a printing job.
Pulp
Fibrous material in papermaking produced either mechanically or chemically from fibrous cellulose raw material (wood most common).
R
Rag Paper
Today it is usually referred to as cotton fiber paper. It is made from cotton cuttings and linters.
Ream
Paper that has been separated into reams and individually packaged or wrapped. One ream is 500 sheets of paper.
Recyclable
This means the product can be recycled. This applies to most paper even if it is coated, waxed or otherwise treated.
Recycled
Paper made at least in part from recovered fibers. There is no universally acceptable definition so requirements vary by specific circumstances. EPA requires post-consumer content in recycled papers purchased by federal agencies. But the FTC does not require post-consumer content in papers labeled recycled. Most U.S. governments and companies use the EPA standards, but there is no requirement. In Canada most companies use the terra-choice definition for recycle that does require minimum levels of post-consumer fiber.
Register Mark
Mark placed on a form to assist in proper positioning of after-printing operations. Two short lines at right angles are called an angle mark. Also, bulls-eye marks placed on camera-ready copy to assist in registration of subsequent operations.
Registration
Alignment of one element of a form in relation to another. Also, alignment of printed images upon the same sheet of paper.
Right Side
The felt side of a sheet, also the side on which the watermark, if any, may be read.
Runnability
Paper's performance on a press and its ability to withstand the stresses of a running press unaltered. Not the same as printability.
S
Saddle Stitch
Binding process for pamphlets or booklets which works by stapling through the middle fold of the sheets.
Scanner
Optical scanner, also electric device used in making color separation.
Scanning
Point-by-Point electronic scanning of color separations under computer control.
Score
The process and the resulting crease mechanically impressed in the paper to facilitate folding while guarding against cracking of paper and board. Scoring is essential when heavyweight papers are to be folded across the grain.
Screen
The ruling used to determine the dots per unit area in developing tonal values in the printed piece. Screens from which letterpress halftones of photographs are made range from 60 lines-per-inch for printing on newsprint to 150 lines for printing on coated paper. Offset halftones for printing on most surfaces range from 133 lines to 200 lines.
Screen Printing
Printing process uses a screen of fine-mesh silk stretched across a frame. A squeegee is drawn across the screen forcing ink through the open image areas.
Sewn Book
A popular style of bookbinding in which the signatures are gathered in sequence and then sewn individually in 8s, 16s, or 32s. The sewing threads are visible at the center of each signature.
Sheet
Term which may be applied to a single sheet, a grade of paper, or a description of paper, i.e. coated, uncoated, offset, etc.
Sheet Fed
Any printing press requiring paper in a sheet form as opposed to printing in rolls.
Short Grain
Occurs when the predominant fiber orientation is parallel to the shortest sheet dimension.
Show Through
In printing, the undesirable condition in which the printing on the reverse side of a sheet can be seen through the sheet under normal lighting conditions.
Side Stitch
A method of binding in which the folded signatures or cut sheets are stitched with wire along and through the side, close to the gutter margin. Pages cannot be fully opened to a flat position; also called side wire.
Signature
Section of book obtained by folding a single sheet of printed paper in 8, 12, 16 or 32 pages.
Silkscreening
Another name for screen process printing.
Size or Sizing
Additive substances applied to the paper either internally through the beater or as a coating that improves printing qualities and resistance to liquids. Commonly used sizes are starch and latex.
Skid
A reusable platform support made of wood, on which sheets of paper are delivered, and on which printed sheets or folded sections are stacked. Also used to ship materials, usually in cartons that have been strapped to the skid. Or a quantity of paper, usually about 3000 lbs., skid-packed.
Slip Sheeting
Placing pieces of paper between folded sections prior to trimming four sides, to separate completed books.
Slurry
Watery suspension of pigments, etc., which is used in coating or papermaking.
Smashed Blanket
An area of a blanket that is no longer firm and resilient, and that gives a light impression in the center of a well-printed area. Usually caused by physical damage of the blanket at impression.
Smooth Finish
A finish on paper that has been made smooth by passing through various rollers.
Smythe Sewn
A method of fastening side-by-side signatures so that each is linked with thread to its neighbor, as well as saddle sewn through its own centerfold. Smythe-sewn books open flat. The stitching is on the back of the fold.
Spec'd (specified)
Spec'd instructions gives details of items such as paper, bindery techniques, type, etc., which have been determined for a given job.
Specifier
The designer or printing production worker who determines the types of paper to be used under various circumstances.
Spectrophotometer
Sophisticated instrument that measures color across a visible spectrum and produces data describing the color of a given sample in terms of the three parameters in color space.
Spine
Backbone of a book.
Spiral Binding
Wires in a spiral form inserted through specially punched holes along the binding edge.
Split Fountain
A technique for simultaneously printing two colors from the same ink fountain.
Spot Varnish
Press varnish applied to a portion of the sheet, as opposed to an overall application of the varnish.
Stiffness
Property of paper to resist bending.
Stitched Book
A popular method of sewing the signatures of a book together by stitching all the sheets at one time, either through the center of the inserted sheets or side-stitched from front to back.
Stochastic
A digital screening process that converts images into very small dots (14-40 microns) of equal size and variable spacing. Also called Frequency Modulated (FM) screening.
Stock Sizes
Standard sizes of paper or board.
Stock Weights
Weights of papers stocked by mills and merchants.
Stocking Items
Papers manufactured in popular sizes, weights, colors, etc. on a regular basis to maintain adequately stocked inventories in mill warehouses.
Stocking Merchant
Paper distributor that stocks in his warehouse enough paper to immediately fill anticipated orders in the market. This eliminates the delay of ordering from the paper mill, taking delivery, and delivering to the customer.
Stretch
Describes the "give" of a sheet of paper when it is subjected to tensile pressure.
Strike Through
Penetration of printing ink through a sheet of paper.
Super Calendering
Alternating rolls of highly polished steel and compressed cotton in a stack. During the process the paper is subjected to the heated steel rolls and "ironed".
Swatchbook
A sample book. A grouping of papers, usually in bound form, that displays the weights, colors, finishes and other particulars of a collection of papers to aid in the selection of grades.
T
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
A file format for graphics suited for representing scanned images and other large bitmaps. TIFF is a neutral format designed for compatibility with all applications. TIFF was created specifically for storing grayscale images, and it is the standard format for scanned images such as photographs-now called TIFF/IT.
TCF - Totally Chlorine Free
Includes both virgin and post-consumer fibers that are bleached without any chlorine containing compounds.
Text Paper
A general term applied to various grades of printing paper designed for deluxe printed booklets, programs, announcements and advertising. May be watermarked.
Thermography
Letterpress printing that uses a special ink that while still wet is dusted with a resin powder. Then the sheets are baked which fuses the powder with the ink and gives the printing a raised effect.
Thickness
Measurement in thousandths of an inch.
Tolerance
Permissible degree of variation from a pre-set standard.
Tooth
Characteristic of paper. A slightly rough paper which permits acceptance of ink readily.
Translucent Papers
Papers that will allow information to be seen through them but not totally clear like acetate; Photographic positive mounted in a clear or transparent image.
Transparent Ink
Printing ink that does not conceal the color beneath. Process inks are transparent so that they will blend to form other colors.
Trapping
The ability to print a wet ink film over previously printed ink. Dry trapping is printing wet ink on dry paper or over dry ink. Wet trapping is printing wet ink over previously printed wet ink.
Trim
Excess of the paper allowed a printed sheet for gripper and bleed.
Trim Marks
In printing, marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the page where to cut or trim.
Trim Size
The final size of a printed piece after trimming.
Tumble
Head to foot printing.
Two Sidedness
In paper, the property denoting difference in appearance and printability between its top (felt) and bottom (wire) sides.
Two Up
Printing the same page or group of pages from two sets of plates, thereby producing two impressions of a piece at one time.
Type Face
A design of letters of the alphabet intended to be used in combination with each other.
U
Uncoated
Paper that has not been coated. Nevertheless a given coated sheet can be made in a variety of finishes.
Under Run
Term refers to an order produced or delivered that is less than the quantity specified by the customer. Allowances are permitted in trade practices for under-runs.
Up
A term used to describe how many similar sheets can be produced from a larger sheet: two up, four up, etc.
UV
Ultra Violet radiation method of drying process color inks on high-speed multicolor offset presses.
UV Coating
A slick, glossy coating applied to the printed paper surface and dried on press with ultraviolet (UV) light.
UV Inks
In printing, solventless inks that are cured by UV radiation. They are used extensively in screen-printing, narrow web letterpress and flexographic printing.
V
Varnish
Thin, protective coating applied to a printed sheet of paper for protection or improved appearance.
Vellum Finish
A full, toothy, relatively rough finish paper surface of uncoated text and cover papers. Vellum is also used to designate translucent papers
Velox
A black and white print for proofing or for display.
Vignette
Halftone whose background gradually fades away to blend with the surface of the paper.
Virgin Pulp
Paper made from the fibers in their first use, usually from wood pulp.
W
Waterless Offset Printing
Refers to lithographic printing, where no fountain solution
is used.
Watermark
The translucent design or name easily visible when a sheet is held to the light.
Water Resistant
Quality of a sheet of paper to resist penetration by water from one surface to the other.
Web Offset
A lithographic printing press in which the paper is fed from a roll as a web (continuous ribbon), as opposed to sheets.
Web Press
The name of a type of press that prints from rolls of paper.
Wet End
The beginning of the paper machine, comprising the head box, wire, and wet presses; the first sections of the paper machine where the paper web is formed from water and the solid furnish components.
Wet Strength Paper
Paper where the fiber constitutes and/or the sheets are chemically treated to enhance their resistance to tearing, rupturing or disintegration after becoming saturated with liquids.
Whiteness
Whiteness of pulp and paper is generally indicated by its brightness.
Wire
The continuous open mesh material (earlier, a bronze or copper woven wire screen) used on the paper machine to initiate the water removal process.
Wire Side
The side of a sheet next to the wire in manufacturing. It is the side opposite from the felt or top side; usually not as smooth as the felt or top side. The bottom side of the web of paper, as it is produced on the paper machine; historically has been the rougher of the two sides.
Work And Roll
See work and tumble.
Work And Tumble
Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper to the tail to print the second side using the same side guide and plate for the second side.
Work And Turn
Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from left to right using the same side guides and plate for the second side.
Wove Finish
Uncoated paper that has an even finish with a slight toothiness.
Writing Paper
A general term applied to papers used for writing purposes.
Xx Yy Zz
Zig Zag Fold
Folding used with continuous forms with alternating position (head and foot).